Credit risk is defined as a risk of occurrence of losses due to counterparty’s default of payments to the Bank or as a risk of decrease in economic value of amounts due to the Bank as a result of deterioration of counterparty’s ability to repay amounts due to the Bank.
The objective of credit risk management is to minimise losses on the credit portfolio as well as to minimise the risk of occurrence of loans threatened with impairment exposure, while keeping expected level of profitability and value of credit portfolio at the same time
The Bank and subsidiaries of the Group are primarily driven by the following principles of credit risk management:
- each loan transaction is subject to comprehensive credit risk assessment, which is reflected in an internal rating or credit scoring,
- credit risk relating to loan transactions is measured on the stage of examining loan application and on a regular basis, as part of the monitoring process taking into consideration changes in external conditions and in the financial standing of the borrowers,
- credit risk assessment of exposures which are significant due to their risk levels or its value is subject to additional verification by credit risk assessment teams, which are independent of the business teams,
- terms of loan transactions that are offered to a client depend on the assessment of credit risk level or its value generated by the transaction
- loan granting decisions are made only by authorised persons
- credit risk is diversified particularly by geographical location, by industry, by product and by clients,
- expected credit risk level is mitigated by collateral received by the Bank, margins from clients and allowances (provisions) for credit losses.
The above-mentioned principles are executed by the Bank through the use of advanced credit risk management methods, both on the level of individual credit exposures and on the level of the whole credit portfolio of the Bank. These methods are verified and developed to ensure compliance with the internal rating method– based requirements (IRB), i.e. advanced credit risk measurement method, which can be used while calculating requirements as regards own funds for credit risk after being approved by the Polish Financial Supervision Authority.
The Group entities, which have significant credit risk levels (the KREDOBANK SA Group, the PKO Leasing SA Group, PKO Bank Hipoteczny SA and a subsidiary: Finansowa Kompania ‘Prywatne Inwestycje’ Sp. z o.o.) manage their credit risk individually, but the methods used by them for credit risk assessment and measurement are adjusted to the methods used by PKO Bank Polski SA, taking into account the specific nature of the activities of these companies
Any changes to the solutions used by the Group’s subsidiaries are agreed every time with the Bank's units responsible for risk management.
The PKO Leasing SA Group, the KREDOBANK SA and subsidiary: Finansowa Kompania ‘Prywatne Inwestycje’ Sp. z o.o. and PKO Bank Hipoteczny SA measure credit risk regularly and the results of such measurements are submitted to the Bank.
The KREDOBANK SA Group and the PKO Leasing SA Group have organisational units responsible for risk in their organisational structures, which are in particular responsible for:
- developing methods of credit risk assessment, recognising provisions and allowances,
- controlling and monitoring credit risk during the lending process,
- the quality and efficiency of restructuring and enforcement of the amounts due from clients.
In these companies, the credit decision limits depend primarily on: the amount of the exposure to a given client, the amount of an individual credit transaction and the period of credit transaction.
The process of credit decision-making in the KREDOBANK SA Group, the PKO Leasing SA Group is supported by credit committees, which are involved in the case of credit transactions which generate increased credit risk level.
Appropriate organisational units of the Risk Management Area participate in managing the credit risk in the Group entities by giving their opinions on projects and periodically reviewing internal regulations of these companies relating to the assessment of credit risk and preparation of recommendations relating to amendments in the drafts of regulations. The Bank supports implementation of the recommended changes in principles for assessing credit risk in the Group entities.
In 2015, the Bank implemented application and procedural solutions streamlining the process of measuring the impairment of loan exposures and interest income. Developed methods used in the calculation of write-offs and provisions, including the methodology for estimating the parameters of portfolio, with due regard to the portfolio acquired through the merger with Nordea Bank Polska SA and acquired portfolio of SKOK Wesoła.
56.1 Measurement and assessment of credit risk
Credit risk measurement and assessment methods
In order to assess the level of credit risk and profitability of loan portfolios, the Bank uses different credit risk measurement and valuation methods, including:
- Probability of Default (PD),
- Expected Loss (EL),
- Unexpected Loss (UL),
- Loss Given Default (LGD),
- Credit Value at Risk (CVaR),
- share and structure of impaired loans
- coverage ratio (CR),
- cost of risk.
The Bank extends regularly the scope of credit risk measures used, taking into account the internal rating-based method (IRB) requirements, and extends the use of risk measures to fully cover the whole Bank’s loan portfolio with these methods.
The portfolio credit risk measurement methods allow i.a. to reflect the credit risk in the price of products, determine the optimum conditions of financing availability and determine rates of impairment allowances.
The Bank performs analysis and stress-tests regarding the influence of potential changes in macroeconomic environment on the quality of Bank’s loan portfolio. The test results are reported to the Bank’s authorities. The above-mentioned information enables to identify and take measures to limit the negative influence of unfavourable market changes on the Bank’s performance.
The Bank assesses the risk of individual credit transactions with the use of scoring and rating methods, which are created, developed and supervised by the Banking Risk Division. These methods are supported by specialist IT application software. The scoring method is defined by Bank’s internal regulations whose main aim is to ensure uniform and objective assessment of credit risk during the lending process.
Rating models for corporate clients
The evaluation of credit risk related to financing corporate clients is performed in two dimensions: in respect of the client and of the transaction. The assessment measures comprise the assessment of the credibility of the client, i.e. rating: and the assessment of the transaction, i.e. liability repayment capacity in the specified amount and timing.
Rating models for corporate clients were prepared using internal data of the Bank which ensures that they are tailored to the risk profile of the Bank's clients. Models are based on a statistical dependence analysis between the default and a customer's risk scoring. Scoring includes an assessment of the financial indicators, qualitative factors and evaluation of behavioural factors. The client's risk assessment depends on the size of the enterprise for which analysis is made. In addition, the Bank is using a model for assessment of credited entrepreneurs in the formula of specialist financing, which allows adequate credit risk assessment of large projects involving real estate financing (e.g. office space, retail areas, industrial areas) and infrastructure projects (e.g. telecommunications, industrial, public utility infrastructure).
Rating models are implemented in an IT tool that supports the Bank's credit risk assessment related to corporate clients financing.
In order to examine the correctness of functioning of method applied in the Bank, the methodologies of credit risk assessment connected with individual credit exposures are subject to periodical reviews.
The evaluation of retail clients credit risk
The Bank assesses the credit risk of retail clients in two dimensions: the client’s borrowing capacity and his creditworthiness. The assessment of borrowing capacity involves an examination of the client’s financial situation, whereas the creditworthiness assessment involves scoring and evaluating the client’s credit history obtained from internal records of the Bank and external databases.
The credit risk assessment process in Bank takes into account the requirements of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority as defined in the Recommendation S, relating to best practices for the management of mortgage-secured loan exposures and Recommendation T relating to best practice for the management of retail credit exposures
Assessment of credit risk relating to the financing of corporate clients
In the case of corporate clients from the small and medium enterprises segment that meet certain criteria, the Bank assesses credit risk using the scoring method. Such assessment refers to low-value, uncomplicated loan transactions and it is performed in two dimensions: clients’ borrowing capacity and his creditworthiness. The assessment of borrowing capacity involves examination of the client’s economic and financial situation, whereas the creditworthiness assessment involves scoring and evaluation of the client’s credit history obtained from internal records of the Bank and external databases. In other cases, rating method is widely used.
The information about ratings and scoring is widely used in the Bank for the purposes of credit risk management, the system of credit decision making powers, determining the conditions in which credit assessment services are activated and in the credit risk assessment and reporting system.
In case of corporate clients in the corporate client segment, the Bank made improvements in functioning of the lending process. These changes relate to changes in portfolio segmentation, organisational changes which meet client needs in a much better way and, on the other hand, allow comprehensive credit risk assessments to be made independently of the offered corporate and transaction banking products.
56.2 Forecasting and monitoring of credit risk
The Group exposure to credit risk divided into impaired and not impaired, and into not past due and past due
|Amounts due from banks||Involvement|
|Amounts due from banks impaired, of which:||520||362|
|assessed on an individual basis||145||-|
|Amounts due from banks not impaired, of which:||4 552 857||2 486 435|
|not past due||4 552 857||2 486 435|
|Gross total||4 553 377||2 486 797|
|Net total by carrying amount||4 552 972||2 486 686|
|Loans and advances to customers||Involvement|
|Loans and advances impaired, of which:||13 100 910||12 977 310|
|assessed on an individual basis||5 412 768||5 615 878|
|Loans and advances not impaired, of which:||185 600 007||174 542 551|
|with recognised individual impairement trigger||2 043 049||1 651 097|
|not past due||1 605 408||1 050 428|
|past due||437 641||600 669|
|without recognised individual impairement trigger||183 556 958||172 891 454|
|not past due||180 382 118||168 900 373|
|past due||3 174 840||3 991 081|
|Gross total||198 700 917||187 519 861|
|Impairment allowances||(8 287 209)||(8 022 477)|
|for impaired exposures||(7 704 535)||(7 374 894)|
|for not impaired exposures||(582 674)||(647 583)|
|with recognised impairement trigger||(13 479)||(12 551)|
|without recognised impairement trigger||(569 195)||(635 032)|
|Net total by carrying amount||190 413 708||179 497 384|
|Investment securities available for sale - debt securities||Involvement|
|Debt securities impaired, of which:||397 434||-|
|assessed on an individual basis||397 434||-|
|Debt securities not impaired, of which:||27 264 404||21 961 102|
|not past due||27 264 404||21 961 102|
|with external rating||22 355 032||14 054 512|
|with internal rating||4 909 372||7 906 590|
|Gross total||27 661 838||21 961 102|
|Impairment allowances||(56 925)||-|
|Net total by carrying amount||27 604 913||21 961 102|
|Investment securities held to maturity - debt securities||Involvement|
|Debt securities not impaired, of which:||210 330||233 358|
|not past due||210 330||233 358|
|with internal rating||210 330||233 358|
|Gross total||210 330||233 358|
|Net total by carrying amount||210 330||233 358|
|Other assets – other financial assets||Involvement|
|Other assets impaired||108 317||62 081|
|Other assets not impaired, of which:||874 960||707 741|
|not past due||868 137||698 688|
|past due||6 823||9 053|
|Gross total||983 277||769 822|
|Impairment allowances||(108 082)||(59 473)|
|Net total by carrying amount||875 195||710 349|
Maximum exposure to credit risk
|Items of the statement of financial position||31.12.2015||31.12.2014|
|Current account in the central bank||9 854 137||7 772 859|
|Amounts due from banks||4 552 972||2 486 686|
|Trading assets – debt securities||766 641||1 915 120|
|issued by the State Treasury||648 695||1 825 454|
|issued by local government bodies||48 596||50 563|
|issued by other financial institutions||46 122||22 146|
|issued by non-financial institutions||5 344||2 326|
|issued by banks||17 884||14 631|
|Derivative financial instruments||4 347 269||5 494 822|
|Financial instruments designated upon initial recognition at fair value through profit and loss - debt securities||13 337 373||13 804 860|
|issued by the State Treasury||10 036 898||10 998 812|
|issued by central banks||3 052 701||2 478 708|
|issued by local government bodies||247 263||253 817|
|issued by banks||-||73 012|
|issued by non-financial institutions||511||511|
|Loans and advances to customers||190 413 708||179 497 384|
|financial sector (excluding banks)||4 826 553||1 620 708|
|corporate loans||383 662||1 309 856|
|international financial organisations||10 652||-|
|receivables due from repurchase agreements||4 432 239||310 852|
|non-financial sector||175 619 057||167 791 997|
|housing loans||100 668 588||95 797 964|
|corporate loans||50 398 753||49 656 279|
|consumer loans||21 959 827||20 321 718|
|debt securities||2 591 889||2 016 036|
|public sector||9 968 098||10 084 679|
|corporate loans||7 275 422||7 265 003|
|debt securities||2 692 676||2 819 676|
|receivables due from repurchase agreements||-||-|
|Investment securities - debt securities||27 604 913||21 961 102|
|issued by the State Treasury||18 358 006||12 781 051|
|issued by local government bodies||4 613 726||4 480 325|
|issued by non-financial institutions||3 117 859||3 475 594|
|issued by banks||1 515 322||1 224 132|
|Investment securities held to maturity||210 330||233 358|
|issued by the State Treasury||210 330||233 358|
|issued by banks||-||-|
|Other assets - other financial assets||875 195||710 349|
|Total||251 962 538||233 876 540|
|Off-balance sheet items||31.12.2015||31.12.2014|
|Irrevocable liabilities granted||30 513 878||27 730 846|
|Guarantees granted||7 699 483||9 265 599|
|Guarantees of issue||5 489 969||4 571 158|
|Letters of credit granted||1 838 101||702 768|
|Total||45 541 431||42 270 371|
Credit quality of financial assets - neither past due nor impaired
|Financial assets neither past due nor impaired||31.12.2015||31.12.2014|
|Amounts due from banks||4 552 857||2 486 435|
|with external rating||2 168 193||2 204 355|
|without rating||2 384 664||282 080|
|Loans and advances to customers||181 987 526||169 950 801|
|with rating||164 667 976||147 203 666|
|without rating||17 319 550||22 747 135|
|PKO Bank Polski SA||176 422 023||165 049 744|
|with internal rating – customers of financial, non-financial and public sector (corporate loans)||47 556 624||41 359 649|
|A (first rate)||989 788||1 059 550|
|B (very good)||1 408 816||1 455 548|
|C (good)||5 283 130||2 721 287|
|D (satisfactory)||7 160 577||5 663 335|
|E (average)||13 291 549||12 096 148|
|F (acceptable)||16 546 668||14 628 386|
|G (poor)||2 876 096||3 735 395|
|with internal rating – customers of non-financial sector (consumer and housing loans)||114 282 687||103 891 292|
|A (first rate)||93 971 113||74 155 239|
|B (very good)||8 101 614||10 614 538|
|C (good)||5 344 515||11 313 955|
|D (average)||4 093 884||5 802 187|
|E (acceptable)||2 771 561||2 005 373|
|without internal rating – customers of financial, non-financial and public sector (consumer, housing and other loans)||14 582 712||19 798 803|
|The PKO Leasing SA Group||4 976 628||4 383 999|
|with internal rating||2 828 665||1 952 725|
|A (good)||2 407 842||1 558 837|
|B (average)||329 049||336 196|
|C (risky)||91 774||57 692|
|without internal rating||2 147 963||2 431 274|
|without rating – customers of non-financial and financial sector of the other PKO Bank Polski SA Group entities||588 875||517 058|
|Trading assets – debt securities - with internal rating||4 909 372||7 906 590|
|A (first rate)||86 527||-|
|B (very good)||209 520||37 815|
|C (good)||685 010||1 381 794|
|D (satisfactory)||903 578||2 000 235|
|E (average)||1 270 219||1 769 303|
|F (acceptable)||1 030 807||2 239 109|
|G (poor)||628 366||478 334|
|H (bad)||95 345||-|
|Other assets – other financial assets||868 137||698 688|
|Total||187 408 520||173 135 924|
Internal rating classes
Taking the type of the Group’s business activity and the amount of credit and leasing debts into consideration, the most important portfolios are managed by the Bank and PKO Leasing SA. Information about credit quality of loans and receivables granted by the Bank and the PKO Leasing SA Group is presented below.
Exposures to corporate clients which are not individually impaired are classified according to customer rating as part of the internal rating classes, from A to G (in respect of financial institutions from A to F).
The following portfolios are covered by the rating system:
- corporate and investment banking clients
- small and medium enterprises (excluding certain product groups which are assessed in a simplified manner).
Loans and advances which are not individually impaired and are not rated, are characterised with a satisfactory level of the credit risk. It concerns, in particular, retail loans (including housing loans) which do not have individually significant exposures and thus do not create significant credit risk.
External rating classes
Structure of debt securities and amounts due from banks, neither past due nor impaired by external rating classes is presented below:
31 December 2015
|Portflio/Rating||AAA||AA- do AA+||A- do A+||BBB -do BBB+||BB- do BB+||B- do B+||CCC-do CCC+||CC||Caa2*||Caa3*||without rating||31.12.2015|
|Amounts due from banks||45 073||718 174||746 935||515 777||14 383||-||127 851||-||-||-||2 384 664||4 552 857|
|Trading assets – debt securities||-||-||650 015||25 373||22 869||-||-||-||68 384||766 641|
|issued by the State Treasury||-||-||648 695||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||648 695|
|issued by local government bodies||-||-||1 134||-||-||-||-||-||47 462||48 596|
|issued by banks||-||-||186||3 805||13 837||-||-||-||-||-||56||17 884|
|issued by other financial institutions||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||5 344||5 344|
|issued by non-financial institutions||-||-||-||21 568||9 032||-||-||-||15 522||46 122|
|Financial instruments measured at fair value through profit and loss - debt securities||-||-||13 172 886||-||-||-||-||-||-||32 635||131 852||13 337 373|
|issued by the central bank||-||-||10 036 898||-||-||-||-||-||-||10 036 898|
|issued by the State Treasury||-||-||3 020 066||-||-||-||-||32 635||-||3 052 701|
|issued by local government bodies||-||-||115 922||-||-||-||-||-||131 341||247 263|
|issued by banks||-||-|
|issued by other financial institutions||-||511||511|
|Investment securities available for sale – debt securities||-||-||19 728 399||1 448 391||412 818||-||-||-||-||127 351||9 018||21 725 977|
|issued by the State Treasury||-||-||18 230 655||-||-||-||-||-||127 351||18 358 006|
|issued by local government bodies||-||-||31 053||102 166||43 475||-||-||-||-||-||176 694|
|issued by banks||-||-||1 466 691||-||48 631||-||-||-||-||-||-||1 515 322|
|issued by other financial institutions||-||-||-||1 346 225||320 712||-||-||-||-||-||9 018||1 675 955|
|Debt securities held to maturity||-||-||40 065||-||-||-||-||-||-||170 265||-||210 330|
|issued by the State Treasury||-||-||40 065||-||-||-||-||-||170 265||-||210 330|
|Total||45 073||718 174||34 338 300||1 989 541||450 070||-||127 851||-||-||330 251||2 593 918||40 593 178|
*Relates to securities of the KREDOBANK SA Group – according to Moody’s rating
31 December 2014
|Portfolio/Rating||AAA||AA- do AA+||A- do A+||BBB-do BBB+||BB- do BB+||B- do B+||CCC-do CCC+||CC||Caa2*||Caa3*||without rating||31.12.2014|
|Amounts due from banks||-||512 042||1 467 044||175 958||10 438||175||36 927||1 771||-||282 080||2 486 435|
|Trading assets – debt securities||-||-||1 826 259||12 007||14 590||-||-||-||62 264||1 915 120|
|issued by the State Treasury||-||-||1 825 454||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||1 825 454|
|issued by local government bodies||-||-||805||-||-||-||-||-||49 758||50 563|
|issued by banks||-||-||-||-||14 590||-||-||-||41||14 631|
|issued by other financial institutions||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||2 326||2 326|
|issued by non-financial institutions||-||-||-||12 007||-||-||-||-||10 139||22 146|
|Financial instruments measured at fair value through profit and loss - debt securities||-||73 012||13 564 960||140 393||-||-||-||-||-||26 495||-||13 804 860|
|issued by the central bank||-||-||10 998 812||-||-||-||-||-||-||10 998 812|
|issued by the State Treasury||-||-||2 452 213||-||-||-||-||26 495||-||2 478 708|
|issued by local government bodies||-||-||113 935||139 882||-||-||-||-||-||253 817|
|issued by banks||73 012||73 012|
|issued by other financial institutions||511||511|
|Investment securities available for sale – debt securities||-||-||13 795 752||-||49 773||-||-||-||8 921||179 815||20 251||14 054 512|
|issued by the State Treasury||-||-||12 601 236||-||-||-||-||-||179 815||12 781 051|
|issued by local government bodies||-||-||40 717||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||40 717|
|issued by banks||-||-||1 153 799||-||49 773||-||-||-||8 921||-||11 639||1 224 132|
|issued by other financial institutions||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||8 612||8 612|
|Debt securities held to maturity||-||-||40 337||-||-||-||-||-||-||193 021||-||233 358|
|issued by the State Treasury||-||-||40 337||-||-||-||-||-||193 021||-||233 358|
|issued by banks||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Total||-||585 054||30 694 352||328 358||74 801||175||36 927||1 771||8 921||399 331||364 595||32 494 285|
*Relates to securities of the KREDOBANK SA Group – according to Moody’s rating
56.3 Concentration of credit risk within the Group
The Group defines credit concentration risk as one of arising from a considerable exposure to single entities or to group of entities whose repayment capacity depends on a common risk factor. The Capital Group analyses the concentration risk in respect of:
- the largest business entities,
- the largest capital groups,
- geographical regions,
- exposures with established mortgage collateral.
Concentration by the largest business entities
The Banking Law specifies maximum concentration limits for the Bank which has an influence upon the Group. The total value of the Bank's exposures, off-balance sheet liabilities granted by the Bank or shares held by the Bank directly or indirectly in another entity, additional payments into a limited liability company as well as contributions or limited partnership sums – whichever is higher - in a limited partnership or limited joint-stock partnership with a risk of one entity or a group of entities related by capital or management, cannot exceed large exposure limit (exposure concentration limit) which, in accordance to Article 395 item 1 of Regulation of European Parliament and of the Council (EU) No. 575 as of 26 June 2013 on prudential requirements for credit institutions and investment firms amounts to 25% of the recognised consolidated equity.
As at 31 December 2015 and as at 31 December 2014, those concentration limits had not been exceeded. As at 31 December 2015, the largest exposure to a single entity was equal to 15.2% of the recognised consolidated equity. Among 20 largest borrowers of the Group there are exclusively clients of PKO Bank Polski SA.
Total exposure of the Group towards the 20 largest non-banking sector clients:
|No.||Credit exposure includes loans, advances, purchased debts, discounts on bills of exchange, realised guarantees, interest receivable and off-balance sheet and capital exposures **||Share in credit portfolio, which includes off-balance sheet and capital exposures||No.||Credit exposure includes loans, advances, purchased debts, discounts on bills of exchange, realised guarantees, interest receivable and off-balance sheet and capital exposures **||Share in credit portfolio, which includes off-balance sheet and capital exposures|
|1.||4 107 315||1,55%||1.||3 193 998||1,27%|
|2.||2 721 659||1,03%||2.||2 474 087||0,99%|
|3.||2 080 000||0,79%||3.||2 266 960||0,90%|
|4.||1 910 368||0,72%||4.||2 172 936||0,87%|
|5.||1 841 906||0,70%||5.||2 080 000||0,83%|
|6.||1 668 558||0,63%||6.||1 643 091||0,66%|
|7.||1 593 902||0,60%||7.||1 266 301||0,51%|
|8.||1 216 633||0,46%||8.||1 177 916||0,47%|
|9.||1 212 610||0,46%||9.||1 130 843||0,45%|
|10.||1 007 768||0,38%||10.||1 007 768||0,40%|
|11.||965 100||0,37%||11.||957 362||0,38%|
|12.||964 006||0,36%||12.||911 026||0,36%|
|13.||894 795||0,34%||13.||904 016||0,36%|
|14.||870 879||0,33%||14.||890 858||0,36%|
|15.||852 887||0,32%||15.||834 655||0,33%|
|16.||811 417||0,31%||16.||794 693||0,32%|
|17.||790 594||0,30%||17.||793 137||0,32%|
|18.||771 158||0,29%||18.||746 933||0,30%|
|19.||748 695||0,28%||19.||714 037||0,29%|
|20.||704 189||0,27%||20.||712 771||0,28%|
|Total||27 734 440||10,49%||Total||26 673 388||10,65%|
* off-balance sheet exposure includes liability resulting from derivative transactions in the amount of their equivalent in the statement of financial position (according to the provisions of Article 274 item 2 of the CRR regulation)
Concentration by the largest capital groups
The greatest exposure of the PKO Bank Polski SA Group towards a capital group of borrowers amounted to 1.61% of the Group’s loan portfolio. The 5 largest capital groups include only clients of PKO Bank Polski SA.
As at 31 December 2015 and as at 31 December 2014 the greatest exposure concentration of Group amounted to 15,7% and 12.1% of the Capital Group recognised equity.
Exposure of the Group towards the 5 largest capital groups:
|No.||Credit exposure includes loans, advances, purchased debts, discounts on bills of exchange, realised guarantees, interest receivable and off-balance sheet and capital exposure**||Share in credit portfolio, which includes off-balance sheet and capital exposures off-balance sheet and capital exposures||No.||Credit exposure includes loans, advances, purchased debts, discounts on bills of exchange, realised guarantees, interest receivable and off-balance sheet and capital exposure**||Share in credit portfolio, which includes off-balance sheet and capital exposures off-balance sheet and capital exposures|
|1||4 247 737||1,61%||1||3 498 120||1,39%|
|2||3 288 893||1,24%||2||3 194 479||1,27%|
|3||2 925 720||1,11%||3||2 972 486||1,19%|
|4||2 746 047||1,04%||4||2 315 214||0,92%|
|5||2 045 718||0,77%||5||2 189 608||0,87%|
|Total||15 254 114||5,77%||Total||14 169 907||5,64%|
* off-balance sheet exposure includes liability resulting from derivative transactions in the amount of their equivalent in the statement of financial position (according to the provisions of Article 274 item 2 of the CRR regulation).
Concentration by industries
As compared with 31 December 2014 the exposure of Capital Group in industry sectors has increased by approx. PLN 0.8 billion. The total exposure in the four largest industry groups ‘Industrial processing’, ‘Maintenance of real estate’, ‘Wholesale and retail trade (...)’, and ‘Public administration and national defence’ amounted to approx. 58% of the total loan portfolio covered by an analysis of the sector.
Structure of exposure by industry as at 31 December 2015 and as at 31 December 2014 is presented in the table below:
|Exposure||Number of entities||Exposure||Number of entities|
|L||Maintenance of real estate||16,62%||19,94%||16,57%||15,95%|
|G||Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles||15,14%||24,13%||14,88%||21,50%|
|O||Public administration and national defence, obligatory social security||9,08%||0,49%||9,09%||0,46%|
|D||Electricity, gas, water vapour, hot water and air to the mechanical systems production and supply||2,01%||0,18%||1,78%||0,18%|
The above industry structure does not include exposure arising from debt securities reclassified from the category ‘available for sale’ to ‘advances and receivables’.
Concentration by geographical regions
The Group’s loan portfolio is diversified in terms of geographical concentration.
The structure of the loan portfolio by geographical regions is identified in the Capital Group due to Bank’s client area – a separate area for the retail market (ORD), a separate area for the corporate and investment banking (OKI).
As at 31 December 2015, the largest concentration of the ORD loan portfolio occurs in region of Warsaw and Katowice (these regions account for 25% of the ORD portfolio)
|Concentration of credit risk by geographical regions for retail clients||31.12.2015||31.12.2014|
Within OKI, the Bank distinguish 7 macro-regions and the headquarter. As at 31 December 2015, the largest concentration of the OKI loan portfolio occurs in the Bank’s headquarter and in the central macro region (20% and 17% of the ORK portfolio, respectively).
|Concentration of credit risk by geographical regions for corporate clients||31.12.2015||31.12.2014|
Concentration of credit risk by currency
As at 31 December 2015, the share of exposure in convertible currencies, other than PLN, in the total loan portfolio of Capital Group amounted to 25,3 % which represents a decrease of approximately 1.0 p.p. compared to 31 December 2014.
The greatest part of the Group’s currency exposures are those in CHF and they relate mainly to the loan portfolio of the Bank. The share of loans in CHF amounted to 64% of total currency portfolio of the Group in 2015. In case of the Group entities, the situation is different, i.e. in the foreign currency portfolio of the PKO Leasing SA Group, the greatest currency exposures are those in EUR whereas, for the KREDOBANK SA Group and in the company Finansowa Kompania ‘Prywatne Inwestycje’ Sp. z.o.o. (i.e. entities operating in Ukraine)- USD denominated loans constitute the largest part.
|Concentration of credit risk by currency||31.12.2015||31.12.2014|
|Foreign currencies, of which:||25,27%||26,21%|
Other types of concentration
The Group analyses the structure of the housing loan portfolio relative to the levels of LTV. At the end of 2015 as in 2014, the largest concentration is in the range of LTV 71%-90%. Due to the legal merger the ratio of loans at the highest LTV over 100%, has increased.
|The structure of the housing loan portfolio of the Group by LTV||31.12.2015||31.12.2014|
|0% - 50%||23,18%||24,90%|
|71% - 90%||27,73%||25,26%|
|91% - 100%||13,54%||14,96%|
|more than 100%||16,17%||15,20%|
In accordance with the Recommendations S and T of the Polish Financial Supervision Authority, the Bank uses internal limits on credit exposures related to the Bank's customers defining the appetite for credit risk.
As at 31 December 2015, these limits have not been exceeded.
56.4 Forbearance practices
Group takes as forbearance actions aimed at making changes in the contract terms agreed with a debtor or an issuer, forced by his difficult financial situation (restructuring activities introducing concessions that otherwise would not be granted) The aim of the forbearance activities is to restore a debtor or an issuer the ability to fulfil its liabilities to the Group and to maximize the efficiency of non-performing loans management, ie. obtaining the highest recoveries while minimising the incurred costs
Forbearance activities include a change in payment terms which is individually agreed on each contract basis. Such changes may concern:
- spreading the due debt into instalments,
- change in a repayment schedule (instalment annuity, decreasing instalments
- extension of the lending period,
- change in interest rates,
- change in the credit margin,
- loans reduction.
As a result of signing and a timely service of forbearance agreement, the loans becomes unmatured. Evaluation of the ability of a debtor to fulfil the forbearance agreement conditions (debt repayment according to the agreed schedule). Forbearance agreements are monitored on an on-going basis. If, as regards to the credit exposure the impairment is recognized, the write-offs are created to balance identified loss.
Loans and advances cease to be subjected of forbearance if the following conditions are met simultaneously:
- timely repayment of at least 12 consecutive instalments (the timely repayment for the needs of forborne can be understood as a situation when the payment of each instalment will take place no later than 30 days after the date of repayment specified in the schedule)
- at least 24 months have elapsed from the conclusion of a forbearance agreement
- impairment of exposures is not recognized
|Loans and advances to customers, gross||198 700 917||187 519 861|
|of which forbearance:||5 534 689||6 362 627|
|financial sector||3 269||395|
|corporate loans||3 269||395|
|non-financial sector||5 530 247||6 361 873|
|corporate loans||2 856 594||3 532 698|
|housing loans||2 143 330||2 165 214|
|consumer loans||530 323||663 961|
|public sector||1 173||359|
|corporate loans||1 173||359|
|Impairment allowances on loans and advances to forbearance customers||(986 300)||(874 529)|
|Loans and advances to customers, net forbearance||4 548 389||5 488 098|
|Loans and advances to customers subjected to forbearance by geographical region (gross)||31.12.2015||31.12.2014|
|Poland||5 423 877||6 247 687|
|mazowiecki||1 133 131||1 105 817|
|wielkopolski||499 092||567 210|
|śląsko-opolski||731 583||810 421|
|małopolsko-świętokrzyski||434 362||591 786|
|pomorski||333 966||329 279|
|podlaski||426 711||510 572|
|łódzki||474 476||702 648|
|dolnośląski||380 847||413 129|
|kujawsko-pomorski||302 146||353 423|
|zachodnio-pomorski||444 233||559 192|
|lubelsko-podkarpacki||236 208||276 533|
|warmińsko-mazurski||27 122||27 677|
|Ukraine||110 812||114 940|
|Total||5 534 689||6 362 627|
|Loans and advances to customers subjected to forbearance||Exposure by gross carrying amount|
|Loans and advances impaired||2 418 018||2 404 248|
|Loans and advances not impaired, of which:||3 116 671||3 958 379|
|not past due||2 477 548||3 123 966|
|past due||639 123||834 413|
|Total gross||5 534 689||6 362 627|
Change in carrying amounts of loans and advances to customers subjected to forbearance at the beginning and at the end of the period
|For the period ended 31 December 2015||Total|
|Carrying amount at the beginning of the period, net||5 488 098|
|Impairment allowance||(111 771)|
|Loans and advances derecognised in the period, gross||(2 427 209)|
|Loans and advances recognised in the period, gross||1 964 654|
|Other changes/repayment||(331 736)|
|Currency translation differences||(33 647)|
|Carrying amount at the end of the period, net||4 548 389|
|For the period ended 31 December 2014||Total|
|Carrying amount at the beginning of the period, net||3 326 784|
|Impairment allowance||172 721|
|Loans and advances derecognised in the period, gross||(1 319 020)|
|Loans and advances recognised in the period, gross||3 934 519|
|Other changes/repayment||(587 527)|
|Currency translation differences||(39 379)|
|Carrying amount at the end of the period, net||5 488 098|
|Loans and advances to customers by the gross value of the applied changes in repayment terms for forebearance||Gross carrying amount|
|Spreading of due debt into instalments||3 861 507||4 027 497|
|Change in repayment formula (annuity instalments, diminishing instalments)||2 729 930||4 071 355|
|Extention of loan period||1 663 338||1 751 213|
|Change in interest rate||721 237||863 319|
|Change in margin||187 748||164 790|
|Loans reduction||158 968||257 591|
|Other conditions||69 984||95 646|
For a given loan exposure subjected to forbearance more than one change in terms of repayment may be applied.
The amount of recognised interest income related to loans and advances to customers, which are subject to forbearance amounted to PLN 414 124 thousand as at 31 December 2015 (as at 31 December 2014 it amounted to PLN 404 782 thousand).
56.5 Past due of financial assets
Financial assets which are past due but not impaired include the following financial assets:
|up to 1 month||1 - 3 months||over 3 months||Total|
|Loans and advances to customers||2 308 445||1 068 555||235 481||3 612 481|
|non-financial sector||2 289 241||1 068 555||215 589||3 573 385|
|public sector||19 204||-||19 886||39 090|
|Other assets – other financial assets||187||59||6 577||6 823|
|Total||2 308 632||1 068 614||242 058||3 619 304|
|up to 1 month||1 - 3 months||over 3 months||Total|
|Loans and advances to customers||3 504 077||837 553||250 120||4 591 750|
|non-financial sector||3 403 093||822 429||217 787||4 443 309|
|public sector||100 984||15 124||32 331||148 439|
|Other assets – other financial assets||4 369||726||3 958||9 053|
|Total||3 508 446||838 279||254 078||4 600 803|
Collaterals for the above receivables include: mortgages, registered pledges, transfers of property rights, account lock-ups, loan exposure insurances, warranties and guarantees.
The conducted assessment proved that for the above-mentioned financial assets the expected cash flows fully cover the carrying amount of these exposures.
56.6 Financial assets assessed on an individual basis for which individual impairment has been recognised by carrying amount gross
|Amounts due from banks||145||-|
|Loans and advances to customers||5 412 768||5 615 878|
|financial sector||4 557||5 609|
|corporate loans||4 557||5 609|
|non-financial sector||5 391 741||5 593 388|
|corporate loans||3 875 074||4 134 858|
|housing loans||1 104 228||1 248 389|
|consumer loans||304 476||99 297|
|debt securities||107 963||110 844|
|Public sector||16 470||16 881|
|corporate loans||16 470||16 881|
|Financial assets available for sale||397 479||60|
|issued by financial entities||3 777||5|
|issued by non-financial entities||393 702||55|
|Total||5 810 392||5 615 938|
Assets for which individual impairment was assessed on an individual basis were secured by the following collaterals established for the Group:
- for loans and advances to customers: ceiling mortgages and ordinary mortgages, registered pledges, promissory notes of the debtor and transfers of receivables and property right for cash. The financial effect of the collateral held in respect of the amount that best represents the maximum exposure to credit risk as at 31 December 2015 amounted to PLN 2 992 422 thousand (as at 31 December 2014 the amount was PLN 3 593 245 thousand respectively).
- for investment securities available for sale: blank promissory notes, guarantee, registered pledges on the bank account and on debtor’s share
In determining impairment allowances for the above assets, the Group considered the following factors:
- delay in payment of the amounts due by the debtor,
- the debt being declared as due and payable
- enforcement proceedings against the debtor,
- declaration of the debtor’s bankruptcy or filling a petition to declare bankruptcy,
- the amount of the debt being challenged by the debtor
- commencement of corporate recovery proceedings against the debtor,
- establishing imposed administration over the debtor or suspending the debtor’s activities,
- a decline in debtor’s rating to a level indicating a significant threat to the repayment of debt,
- restructuring actions taken and payment reliefs applied
- additional impairment indicators identified for exposures to housing cooperatives arising from housing loans of the so-called ‘old portfolio’, covered by State Treasury guarantees,
- expected future cash flows from the exposure and the related collateral,
- expected future economic and financial position of the client,
- the extent of execution of forecasts by the client.
56.7 Allowances for credit losses
The PKO Bank Polski SA Group performs a monthly review of loan exposures in order to identify credit exposures threatened with impairment, measure the impairment of loan exposures and recognition impairment charges or provisions.
The process of determining the impairment charges and provisions consists of the following stages:
- identifying the indications of impairment and events significant from the point of view of identifying those indications,
- registering in the Capital Group IT systems the events that are material from the point of view of identifying indications of impairment of credit exposures,
- determining the method of measuring impairment,
- measuring impairment and determining an impairment charge or provision,
- verifying and aggregating the results of the impairment measurement,
- recording the results of impairment measurement.
The method of determining the amount of impairment charges is dependent on the type of indications of individual; impairment identified and the individual significance of a credit exposure. The events considered as indications of individual impairment are, in particular, as follows:
- delay in repayment of principal or interest longer than 90 days,
- a significant deterioration in a customer’s internal rating,
- entering into restructuring agreement or granting a discount concerning debt repayment (the indication of impairment is recognised, if the convenience granted to the consumer is a result of its difficult legal or economic position).
When determining the overdue period of a loan, the amounts of interest not paid according to the schedule or instalment payments exceeding accepted thresholds are taken into account.
56.8 Impairment estimating methods
In Capital Group of PKO Bank Polski SA applies three methods of estimating impairment:
- an individual basis applied in respect of individually significant loans, for which the objective evidence of impairment was identified or requiring individual assessment due to the transactions specifics and resulting from events determining the repayment of exposure,
- a portfolio basis applied in respect of individually insignificant loans, for which the objective evidence of individual impairment was identified,
- a group basis (IBNR) applied in respect of the loans, for which the objective evidence of impairment was not identified, but there is a possibility of losses incurred but not recognised occurring.
Impairment allowance in respect of a loan exposure correspond to the difference between the carrying amount of the exposure and the present value of the expected future cash flows from a given exposure:
- while assessing impairment allowances on an individual basis, the expected future cash flows are estimated for each loan exposure individually, taking into account the possible scenarios relating to contract execution, weighted by the probability of their realisation,
- an impairment allowance in respect of loan exposures assessed on an portfolio basis or a group basis corresponds to the difference between the carrying amount of the exposures and the present value of the expected future cash flows estimated using statistical methods, based on historic observations of exposures from homogenous portfolios.
56.9 Provisions for off-balance sheet exposure
The provision for off-balance sheet exposures are created in the offset amount, resulting from expected (possible to estimate) loss of economic benefits.
Establishing the provision for off-balance sheet credit exposures of PKO Bank Polski SA:
- in relation to credit exposures of unconditional liabilities meeting the conditions of individual impairment or relating to debtors whose other exposures such conditions are met and individual exposures that do not meet the conditions of individual impairment, where the determination of the provison for the use of portfolio parameters would be unjustified – uses the individualized method,
- in relation to other off-balance sheet credit exposures – the portfolio method (if an exposure meet the conditions of individual impairment or group (if the exposure meet the conditions of group impairment).
Provision is determined as the difference between the expected amount of exposure in the statement of financial position, which will arise as a result of an off-balance sheet liabilities granted (from the date at which the assessment is performed till the date of overdue amounts due arising considered as constituting an indication of individual impairment) and the present value of the expected future cash flows obtained from the exposure in the statement of financial position arising out of the liability granted.
When assessing a provision on an individual basis, the expected future cash flows are estimated for each loan exposure separately.
When assessing a provision on a portfolio basis or a group basis, the portfolio parameters are used, estimated using statistical methods, based on the historic observations of exposures with the same features.
56.10 Credit risk of financial institutions in the wholesale market
As at 31 December 2015, the largest exposures of PKO Bank Polski SA Group on the market were as follows:
|Exposure on the interbank market*|
|Counterparty||Type of instrument||Total|
|Counterparty 1||800 000||1 162||942 615||1 743 777|
|Counterparty 2||319 613||15 369||-||334 982|
|Counterparty 3||-||139 838||-||139 838|
|Counterparty 4||-||98 236||-||98 236|
|Counterparty 5||-||95 138||-||95 138|
|Counterparty 6||-||69 933||-||69 933|
|Counterparty 7||-||55 471||-||55 471|
|Counterparty 8||-||52 403||-||52 403|
|Counterparty 9||-||48 921||-||48 921|
|Counterparty 10||-||35 787||-||35 787|
|Counterparty 11||-||31 396||-||31 396|
|Counterparty 12||-||20 848||-||20 848|
|Counterparty 13||-||19 572||-||19 572|
|Counterparty 14||-||19 442||-||19 442|
|Counterparty 15||-||18 869||-||18 869|
|Counterparty 16||16 000||-||-||16 000|
|Counterparty 17||-||14 028||-||14 028|
|Counterparty 18||14 000||(925)||-||14 000|
|Counterparty 19||-||13 790||-||13 790|
|Counterparty 20||-||12 629||-||12 629|
* Excluding exposure to the State Treasury and the National Bank of Poland.
For comparison, the largest exposures of PKO Bank Polski SA Group on the interbank market as at 31 December 2014 presents the table below:
|Exposure on the interbank market*|
|Counterparty||Type of instrument||Total|
|Counterparty 1||-||9 031||585 246||594 277|
|Counterparty 26||384 162||-||-||384 162|
|Counterparty 4||-||169 566||-||169 566|
|Counterparty 27||51 175||75 202||-||126 377|
|Counterparty 5||-||93 074||-||93 074|
|Counterparty 9||-||31 165||50 000||81 165|
|Counterparty 8||-||73 060||-||73 060|
|Counterparty 7||-||62 516||-||62 516|
|Counterparty 3||-||59 435||-||59 435|
|Counterparty 10||-||37 743||-||37 743|
|Counterparty 28||-||29 418||-||29 418|
|Counterparty 11||-||24 333||-||24 333|
|Counterparty 14||-||23 420||-||23 420|
|Counterparty 2||-||22 583||-||22 583|
|Counterparty 15||-||16 465||-||16 465|
|Counterparty 29||-||15 887||-||15 887|
|Counterparty 30||-||12 912||-||12 912|
|Counterparty 31||10 000||(3 789)||-||10 000|
|Counterparty 32||10 000||(7 178)||-||10 000|
|Counterparty 20||-||9 195||-||9 195|
* Excluding exposure to the State Treasury and the National Bank of Poland.
For the purpose of determining exposures, deposits and securities issued by the counterparties, are stated at nominal values, while derivative instruments are stated at market values, excluding the collateral established by the counterparty. Total exposure to each counterparty (‘Total’ column) is the sum of exposures arising from deposits and securities, increased by the exposure arising from derivative instruments, if it is positive (otherwise the exposure arising from derivatives is not included in total exposure). Exposure arising from all instruments is calculated from the moment of entering into transaction.
As at 31 December 2015, the Bank had access to two clearing houses (in one as an indirect participant, as a direct in the other), through which settled the defined in EMIR Regulation (Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories), derivative transactions on interest rate with selected national and foreign partners. In nominal terms, the share of transactions cleared centrally in case of FRA amounted to 8,2% of the total portfolio of FRA, in the case of the IRS 0,5% of the total portfolio of IRS transactions.
As at 31 December 2015 the Bank had signed framework agreements, in accordance with ISDA/PBA standards, with 23 local banks and 60 foreign banks and credit institutions. hedge agreements CSA/PBA of 20 local banks and 50 foreign banks and credit institutions. Additionally, the Bank was a party of 13 agreements on repo (for standard ISMA/GMRA).
Geographical location of counterparties
The counterparties generating the 20 largest exposures as at 31 December 2015 come from the following countries detailed in the table below (classified by location of registered office):
|3||France||Counterparty 6, Counterparty 8|
|5||Germany||Counterparty 4, Counterparty 10, Counterparty 20|
|6||Poland||Counterparty 1, Counterparty 2, Counterparty 7, Counterparty 9, Counterparty 15, Counterparty 18|
|8||Switzerland||Counterparty 11, Counterparty 16|
|9||The United Kingdom||Counterparty 5, Counterparty 12, Counterparty 19|
Counterparty structure by rating
Exposure structure by rating is presented in the table below. The ratings were determined based on external ratings granted by Moody’s, Standard&Poor’s and Fitch agencies (when a rating was granted by two agencies, the lower rating was applied, whereas when a rating was granted by three agencies, the middle rating was applied). Rating for counterparties from 1 to 20 was accepted as at 31 December 2015.
|AA||Counterparty 3, Counterparty 12, Counterparty 13, Counterparty 16|
|A||Counterparty 1, Counterparty 4, Counterparty 5, Counterparty 6, Counterparty 8, Counterparty 11, Counterparty 14, Counterparty 17, Counterparty 20|
|BBB||Counterparty 2, Counterparty 7, Counterparty 10, Counterparty 19|
|BB||Counterparty 9, Counterparty 15|
|without rating||Counterparty 18|
56.11 Credit risk of financial institutions on the retail market
In addition to the interbank market exposure discussed above, as at 31 December 2015 the Group had an exposure to financial institutions on the retail market. (exposure generated by Entities other than Treasury Department, including e.g. loans granted, bonds purchased outside interbank market).
The structure of exposures over PLN 10 million is presented in the table below:
|2015||Nominal value of exposure||Country of the counterparty|
|Statement of financial position item||Off-balance sheet item|
|Counterparty 1||500 000||-||Poland|
|Counterparty 3||511||59 489||USA|
|Counterparty 21||50 000||-||Poland|
|Counterparty 22||18 540||10 955||Sweden|
|Counterparty 23||2 670||17 830||Denmark|
|Counterparty 24||89 140||-||Poland|
For comparison, the structure of exposure over PLN 10 million as at 31 December 2014 is presented in the table below (in thousands PLN):
|2014||Nominal value of exposure||Country of the counterparty|
|Statement of financial position item||Off-balance sheet item|
|Counterparty 1||500 000||-||Poland|
|Counterparty 25||50 000||-||Poland|
|Counterparty 21||53 978||6 021||Poland|
|Counterparty 24||101 808||-||Poland|
56.12 Management of foreclosed collateral
Foreclosed collaterals as a result of restructuring or debt collection activities are either designated for sale or used by the Group for internal purposes. Details of the foreclosed assets are analysed in order to determine whether they can be used by the Group for internal purposes. All of the assets taken over as a result of restructuring and debt collection activities in the years ended 31 December 2015 and 31 December 2014, respectively, were designated for sale.
Activities undertaken by the Group are aimed at selling assets as soon as possible. Primary procedure for sale of assets is open tender. In justified cases, the different procedure dependent on the specifics of sold property.
The carrying amounts of non-financial assets held by the Capital Group, gained as a result of collateral as at 31 December 2015 amounted to PLN 178 146 thousand (as at 31 December 2014 it amounted to PLN 170 194 thousand). The above-mentioned amounts are presented in the note 32 ‘Other assets’ in line item ‘Assets for sale’.
56.13 Credit risk reporting
The Bank prepares monthly and quarterly credit risk reports. The reporting of credit risk covers specifically cyclic information on the risk exposure of the credit portfolio. In addition to the information concerning the Bank, the reports also contain information about the credit risk level for the Group subsidiaries (i.a. KREDOBANK SA Group and the PKO Leasing SA Group), which have significant credit risk levels.)
56.14 Management actions concerning credit risk
Basic credit risk management tools used by the Bank include:
- minimum transaction requirements (risk parameters) determined for a given type of transaction (e.g. minimum LTV value, maximum loan amount, required collateral),
- the principles of defining credit availability, including cut-offs – the minimum number of points awarded in the process of creditworthiness assessment with the use of a scoring system (for retail clients and SMEs) or the client’s rating class (for corporate clients), which a client must obtain to receive a loan,
- concentration limits – the limits defined in article 395, item 1 of the CRR Regulation
- industry-related limits – limits which reduce the risk level related to financing institutional clients that conduct business activities in industries characterised by high level of credit risk,
- limits on credit exposures related to the Bank's clients – the limits defining the appetite for credit risk as result of among others the recommendations S and T,
- credit limits defining the Bank’s maximum exposure to a given client or country in respect of wholesale operations and settlement limits and limits for the period of exposure,
- competence limits – they define the maximum level of credit decision-making powers with regard to the Bank’s clients, the limits depend primarily on the amount of the Bank’s exposure to a given client (or a group of related clients) and the loan transaction period, the competence limit depends on the credit decision-making level (in the Bank’s organisational structure),
- minimum credit margins – credit risk margins relating to a given credit transaction concluded by the Bank with a given corporate client, but the interest rate offered to a client cannot be lower than the reference rate plus credit risk margin.
Collateral management policy as regards credit risk plays a significant role in establishing minimum transaction terms. The Bank’s and the Group’s entities collateral management is meant to secure properly the credit risk, to which the Capital Group is exposed, including first of all the fact of establishing collateral that will ensure the highest possible level of recovery in the event of realisation of debt collateral activity.
The Bank applies the following rules with respect to accepting collateral for loan exposures:
- in the case of substantial loans, several types of collaterals are established, including, if possible, combination of personal guarantees with collaterals established on assets,
- liquid types of collaterals, i.e. collaterals established on tangible assets, disposal of which is possible without a substantial reduction in their prices at a time, which does not expose the Bank to change the value of the collateral due to the appropriate price fluctuation of a particular collateral are preferred,
- when an asset is accepted as collateral, an assignment of cash receivables from the insurance policy relating to this asset or the insurance policy concluded to the Bank are accepted as additional collateral,
- collateral is assessed in terms of the actual possibility of its use as a potential source of the Bank's claim. The basis of the value assessment of the collateral established on tangible assets is the market value,
- effective establishment of collateral in compliance with the loan agreement is necessary to make the funds available.
The policy regarding collateral is defined by the internal regulations of subsidiaries of the Group.
The type of collateral depends on the product and the client segment. With regard to mortgage loans the obligatory collateral are mortgages on the property. Until an effective protection is established (depending on the type and amount of a loan) the Bank may use an increased credit margin or accept temporary collateral in different form.
With regard to consumer loans, usually personal guarantees are used (a civil law surety/guarantee, a bill of exchange) or collateral is established on the client’s bank account, his car or securities.
When signing a leasing agreement, the PKO Leasing SA Group, as a proprietor of leased objects, treats them as collateral.